Monitoring leakage risks for protection of the environment and groundwater
Tools and techniques advanced through ENOS will be an essential part of demonstrating that CO2 is safely stored and that no CO2 has migrated out of the deep storage reservoir. ENOS will focus on using practical experience from real-life field laboratory facilities and natural analogue sites to advance understanding of the processes and impact of CO2 migration in the shallow subsurface. This improved understanding will be used to further advance monitoring tools and techniques that could give an early indication of any CO2 leakage or unwanted migration, in the unlikely event that this were to occur.
A combination of field laboratories, natural analogue sites and innovative models will be used to advance monitoring tools and techniques to identify unwanted migration and quantify CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Research will be carried out at a range of sites, each offering unique geological characteristics, including the Italian Sulcis Fault Lab, UK GeoEnergy Test Bed (GTB) and Czech Republic LBr-1 field site.
Small-scale injection will be carried out at a range of sites (subject to obtaining relevant permissions), each offering unique geological characteristics that will address specific aspects of CO2 migration in the shallow subsurface. Understanding how CO2 migrates along geological faults will be examined at the Sulcis Fault Lab and monitoring tools for use in shallow aquifers will be advanced at the GeoEnergy Test Bed. The LBr-1 site will be used to model the potential for CO2 seepage to the surface at existing boreholes. ENOS activities at these field laboratory facilities will be complemented by fieldwork carried out at natural analogue sites where CO2 from natural sources is seeping to the surface.
Targeted monitoring technologies for leakage detection and quantification will be advanced at real-life sites, progressing them from experimental or laboratory validation at Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) 4 or 5 to tools demonstrated in a relevant or operational environment at TRL 6 or 7. The tools developed will help site operators meet the monitoring requirements of the EU Storage Directive and Guidance documents and be applicable over the full storage lifecycle, The suite of ENOS-developed tools will be integrated with other state-of-the-art tools, available outside of the project, to provide a comprehensive suite of monitoring tools for operators of future full-scale onshore storage sites.