Accelerating the development and deployment of CCS in Europe
CO2 geological storage, especially onshore, is facing resistance by the general public and local communities in Europe. The importance, safety and effectiveness of storing CO2 in the deep subsurface is being questioned. As a result, CO2 storage projects and corresponding climate change mitigation, are being delayed and even cancelled.
The ENOS project addresses a number of possible economic benefits of CO2 storage combined with the re-use of part of the CO2 for commercial purposes and attempts to improve the sustainability of these economic activities.
For example, the large greenhouse industry in the Netherlands uses CO2 to enhance the growth of their crops. ENOS will examine the potential of combining CCS with a scheme where a part of the CO2, which is injected in the deep subsurface, is temporarily stored and then back-produced for use in the greenhouses. This provides a needed product of value plus a reduction in the overall release of CO2 into the atmosphere.
Another possible use is to inject CO2 in the underground to recover more oil. This method, which is called CO2-enhanced oil recovery, has been employed for several decades, using mainly natural CO2. If man-made CO2 is used instead, it becomes a valuable product, while at the same time locking a significant proportion of that greenhouse gas in the oil field underground.
Combining storage and use of CO2 could help reach both climate and economic objectives. The evaluation and development of the two applications (seasonal buffering and enhanced oil recovery) will focus on technical, economic and regulatory aspects. Developing these projects will contribute to the higher goal of demonstrating the application of CO2 geological storage, thereby accelerating the development and deployment of CO2 storage and thus CO2 emission reduction in Europe.