CO2 buffering and re-production for greenhouse horticulture

Advance the understanding of integrating CO2 seasonal storage with back-production and permanent storage of CO2

The greenhouse area north of Rotterdam (The Netherlands) has been using CO2 from refineries and the chemical industry in the Port of Rotterdam for more than a decade. Roughly 400 kt of CO2 is captured, transported and used in the greenhouses in summer to stimulate crop growth every year. The operator of the transport pipeline system wants to secure the supply in case one of the sources is down, e.g. for maintenance, and also foresees growth in the demand for CO2 during the summer season. Both could be accommodated through buffering excess supply during winter, which could be combined with permanent storage as well. This would improve the sustainability of the horticulture, the refineries and the chemical industry by significantly reducing CO2 emissions.

A small gas and condensate field just offshore from the Port of Rotterdam, the Q16-Maas field, is a potential subsurface buffer. The ENOS project investigates the most economically attractive setup of facilities, and injection and production conditions, to buffer CO2 in sufficient quantities, with the proper gas composition for use in greenhouses. The project will investigate in detail the composition of the produced gas and requirements for gas treatment before it can be delivered to greenhouses. In addition to the composition of the re-produced CO2, the mass balance of the whole system will be a key issue: how much CO2 comes in, goes out, or stays in the system and how can the CO2 be monitored in order to meet legal requirements and gain ETS credits for the CO2 stored. In addition, the regulatory requirements on CO2 for these integrated activities will be investigated.

The goal of this activity is to maximise the field’s injection and production rates, with cost-efficient surface facilities. The results will be useful for other subsurface CO2 buffering projects as well.



  • Technical feasibility and optimized setup of seasonal CO2 buffer scenario.

  • Quantification of mass balance and quality of the re-produced CO2, including a description of cleaning technologies to improve the CO2 quality.
  • Potential challenges and solutions for regulations with regard to buffering and permanent storage.

  • Detailed description of an adequate monitoring system that suits the regulatory requirements.