Social involvement and economic evaluation

CREATING A SPACE to reflect together on the CO2 storage technology

Coordination of the research development with local communities is one of the key features of the ENOS project. This is an innovative concept and is meant to support the management of highly complex technological innovation. When technicians develop industrial scale technologies without involving social stakeholders a gap is often created between how a technology is seen by professionals and by the lay public. This can lead to technologies that are not fully satisfactory from a social point of view. Creating opportunities for civil society to provide input directly during the research process can help researchers better address public wishes and concerns.

ENOS will involve lay citizens and other local stakeholders. Researchers and citizens will work together, to understand how social needs can be taken into account in the research process. Time will be dedicated to explore the different aspects of the technology and to discuss topics that are of direct interest for the population. The citizens that will participate in the project’s activities will have the opportunity to gain insight into the research process, to understand the different facets of the problems the project is addressing, to pose questions and reflect, together with researchers, on what are the best solutions and practices for the implementation of CO2 storage sites.


The work will be conducted in four countries: in Italy, in the Sulcis area, where studies for geological characterisation have been on-going for some years to build up knowledge for a prospective pilot site; in Spain, where an advanced pilot site is operating at Hontomin; in The Netherlands, where no specific project is planned but interesting benefits could come from associating CO2 storage with CO2 use; and in the United Kingdom, at the Geoenergy Test Bed, Sutton Bonington.


CCS financing and the local economy

CO2 storage can be associated to some economic activities thus bringing an added value to local communities. To this end, more data are needed to enable financial investment evaluation and to support early movers.


ENOS will evaluate and develop demonstration of CO2 storage integrated in other economic activities, e.g. enhanced hydrocarbon production, CO2 buffering for different types of utilization and CO2 buffering as part of a CO2 (shipping) terminal, prior to transport and large-scale storage. Work will be done at 2 sites:

  • LBr-1: an oil field in the Czech Republic to demonstrate integration of safe and permanent CO2 storage in combination with Enhanced Hydrocarbon Recovery (EHR);
  • Q16-Maas: a gas-condensate field in The Netherlands to demonstrate safe and permanent CO2 storage in combination with CO2 buffering and delivery for different types of utilization. Furthermore the Q16-Maas field can be integrated as a buffer location for a CO2 shipping terminal in the Port of Rotterdam. The data from a different gas field offshore the Netherlands ,K12 B, will be used as an analogue to provide information on the composition of the back produced CO2.


The evaluation and development will focus on technical, economic and regulatory aspects. Developing these projects will contribute to the higher goal of accelerating the development and deployment of CCS in Europe and will improve the competitiveness and growth of companies in the energy and food sectors and will positively impact employment and decrease the carbon footprint.