Raise awareness, stimulate dialogue and aid decision making regarding the potential synergies of combining CO2 storage with other economic activities
To move CO2 storage and utilisation projects beyond the research and demonstration phase, business cases have to be identified and developed, which involve the exploration of additional factors beyond technical feasibility alone. Roadmaps can be used to identify individual engineering, economic, environmental, regulatory and societal factors that must be addressed to allow projects to move forward.
Roadmaps will be developed for both the CO2-EOR and CO2 Buffering concepts, which will include the technical, economic and regulatory outputs from WP4.
CO2-Buffering in the Dutch greenhouse sector to 2030
Sufficient warmth, light and enhanced CO2 levels in a greenhouse are essential for creating the optimal growing conditions for all commercial crops. The combustion of natural gas in combined heat and power (CHP) installations is the most common route to create such an environment. The majority of growers use purified exhaust streams from such installations as the primary source of CO2, which is also the primary source of CO2 emissions from the sector. Many stakeholders are looking to reduce the reliance on CHP installations, looking towards more sustainable sources of heat from geothermal installations and industrial waste heat. However, without access to secure and affordable CO2, CHP installations will continue to be used. A Roadmap for CO2 re-use will cover the expected demand by greenhouses in the south-western part of the Netherlands to 2030. The roadmap will clearly outline the necessary technical and organisational milestones, expected duration, potential challenges and solutions associated with realising the CO2 buffering concept.
Towards a strategic development plan for CO2 EOR in the Vienna Basin
Leading from the exploratory work completed for the Czech LBr-1 CO2-EOR pilot site, an assessment will be made of the EOR potential in the oil fields of the Vienna Basin. Initial studies have been completed on using various techniques to maximise the production of individual mature oil fields of the Vienna Basin spread across Austria, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. From this information it is clear that potential exists for enhancing oil recovery in the region through CO2 injection, however commercial projects have yet to take place. A strategic, regional dialogue, involving both emitters, potential storage operators and governing bodies, on the potential for CO2-EOR and storage synergies can have considerable value for understanding the barriers and drivers for moving this concept forward. The objective of this task is to explore the potential drivers and barriers to the development of CO2-EOR in the region of Austria, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Based on existing data, estimates will be made on both the economic and environmental benefits of the technology. Existing CO2 sources and transportation routes to specific EOR fields will be identified. Potential operators will be approached to build an initial representation of the conditions necessary to realise a business case for a project in the region. This task will result in a report providing the foundations for a strategic development plan for CO2-EOR in the region.
Both the Roadmap for the CO2 buffering project in the Netherlands, and the report on CO2 EOR potential in the Vienna Basin, are intended to raise awareness, stimulate dialogue and aid decision making both by businesses and policy makers, regarding the potential synergies of combining CO2 storage with other economic activities, both to the benefit of society and the environment. The reports will include consistent approaches to stakeholder and economic analysis, and the identification of engineering milestones for CO2 storage projects, which may be transferable to similar concepts in other regions.